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1-Evaluating the patients drug-therapy record (drug profile) and reviewing prescription orders to ensure that a prescribed therapy is safe and to identify, solve or prevent actual or potential drug-related problems or concerns. Examples include possible contraindications, drug interactions or therapeutic duplication, allergic reactions and patient nonadherence to treatment. Significant concerns should be discussed with the prescriber.


2-Ensuring safe procurement, storage, preparation, distribution and dispensing of pharmaceutical products (in keeping with federal, provincial and other applicable regulations).


3-Discussing actual or potential drug-related problems or concerns and the purpose of drug therapy with patients, in consultation with caregivers, physicians and health care providers, when appropriate.


4-Monitoring drug therapy to identify drug-related problems or concerns, such as lack of symptomatic response, lack of adherence to treatment plans and suspected adverse effects. Significant concerns should be discussed with the physician.


5-Advising patients and caregivers on the selection and use of nonprescription drugs and the management of minor symptoms or ailments.


6-Directing patients to consult their physician for diagnosis and treatment when required. Pharmacists may be the first contact for health advice. Through basic patient assessment (i.e. observation and interview) they should identify the need for referral to a physician or an emergency department.


7-Notifying physicians of actual or suspected adverse reactions to drugs and, when appropriate, reporting such reactions to health authorities.


8-Providing specific information to patients and caregivers about drug therapy, taking into account patientsexisting knowledge about their drug therapy. This information may include the name of the drug, its purpose, potential interactions or side effects, precautions, correct usage, methods to promote adherence to the treatment plan and any other health information appropriate to the needs of the patient.


9-Providing and sharing general and specific drug-related information and advice with patients, caregivers, physicians, health care providers and the public.


10-Maintaining adequate records of drug therapy to facilitate the prevention, identification and management of drug-related problems or concerns. These records should contain, but are not limited to, each patients current and past drug therapy (including both prescribed and selected over-the-counter drugs), drug-allergy history, appropriate demographic data and, if known, the purpose of therapy and progress toward treatment goals, adverse reactions to therapy, the patients history of adherence to treatment, attitudes toward drugs, smoking history, occupational exposure or risk, and known patterns of alcohol or substance use that may influence his or her response to drugs. Records should also document patient counselling and advice given, when appropriate.


11-Maintaining a high level of knowledge about drug therapy through critical appraisal of the literature and continuing professional development.


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